Aeolos, the god of wind, was believed to have his domicile on the island, specifically on mountain “Tsiknias”. It was from up there that he would unleash winds in every direction.Moreover the island worshiped Poseidon, considered its patron. People believed that it was him who freed the island from the snakes, sending a flock of storks to exterminate them. His wife Amphitriti was equally worshipped as protector of female fertility. To their honour the Temples of Neptune and Amphitriti were built and have been preserved until today in Kionia.
In 740 BC the island is under the sovereignty of Eretria. At intervals it becomes autonomous and member of the Cyclades Federation based on Dilos.
In 490 BC, during the Midiki wars, the island succumbs to the Persians.
In 480 BC the Persians force Tinians to ally with them. The Tinian trireme of Panaetios however, managed to escape and before the battle of Salamis informed the Athenians about the Persian plans. After the victory of the Athenians and as an honor to the Tinians, the name of the island was written on the tripod at Delphi among those of other allied cities.
In 477 BC it allies with the Athenians.
In 405 BC it is subjugated by the Spartans.
In 394 BC allies again with the Athenians.
In 362 BC it is sacked and pillaged by Alexander, the Tyrant of Ferres.
In 338 BC it subordinates to Philip of Macedonia.
In 300 BC it rebels and recovers again its freedom.
In 224 BC it subordinates to the Egyptians.
In 202 BC it is subjugated by the Macedonians.
In 200 BC it is subjugated by the Rhodians and their ally Attalos, King of Pergamos.
In 146 BC it is subjugated by the Romans.
In 88 BC it is sacked and destroyed by Mithridates.
In 86 BC it is subjugated onve more by the Romans and becomes part of the Roman province of Asia Minor.
In 243-249 AD it is sacked by the Goths.
In 292 AD, after the split of the Roman Empire, it becomes an independent province, together with the other islands.
In 325 AD, after the establishment of Christianity, it becomes part of the Byzantine empire.
After the decline of Rome, Tinos belongs to the Byzantine Empire.Being a remote colony of Byzantium and because of its geographic position, Tinos suffered literally countless disasters, lootings, captivities, rapes and massacres due to countless piratical raids by Turks, Arabs, Saracens, Sicilians, Huns and Goths. As if this were not enough, during the same period, the surrounding region experienced nightmarish moments of terrible earthquakes, both in area disasters and frequency. Terrible epidemics, such as the devastating plague, didn’t miss as well. Under these conditions, Tinos had no scope to develop any culture, since even survival was not a self-evident good for the Tinians.As long as the emperor in Byzantium was a brave and determined one, the Cyclades were under his protection, otherwise woes multiplied. This phenomenon certainly became increasingly frequent as the deterioration of Byzantium grew bigger.
During the fourth crusade, the Venetians cooperate with the crusaders and conquer Byzantium in 1204. As a result, the Venetians receive the islands of the Aegean and Ionian Sea.The Venetians realize that these possessions require increased costs in military and naval power, in order both to maintain and defend them from pirates, and to educate and organize them administratively. For this reason, they apply to wealthy Barons and Dukes, who are granted full sovereign rights which can be bequeathed to their descendants.So begins the dynasty of Gizi which lasts until 1390. Throughout the duration of the Venetian domination, the Tinians did not feel intense repression by the conquerors.The defense of the island was the first and basic care of the Venetians. The Venetian fleet was insufficient, so military and naval force was re-established, observatories were built and particular attention was given to the fortification of the castle on mountain Exombourgo.Despite this, and throughout the period of Venetian rule, Tinos suffered a lot of attacks by pirates and the organized Turkish army. However, for more than five centuries these attacks were repelled successfully, so Tinos had the unique privilege of remaining in Christian hands during all that time.
In the early 18th century, the Venetians were in decline. The Cyclades had fallen in Turkish hands long ago. Nevertheless Tinos not only remained impregnable to Turks much longer, but was the starting point of devastating raids against the Turks both in the Aegean and the Turkish coast as well. The hatred of the Turks was now overflowing since they could not subdue such a small island in the middle of the vast Ottoman Empire.
In 1715, 65 Turkish warships, 74 transport ships, and 25 000 Turkish troops arrived on the island. The resistance, although brave, could not stop the march to the castle Exombourgo. Castle Exombourgo was encircled, but still the resistance of the few Tinian warriors within the walls was sufficient. Although the successful confrontation of this giant Turkish attack seemed certain, the inexperienced military commander feared that the castle would not last and, despite the contrary assurances of his experienced officers, he disarmed and gave it to the Turks. The surrender included particularly honorable capitulation terms for the Tinians. On charges of “treason after bribery”, the commander and his officers were punished to death with the extremely harsh punishment of drinking liquid silver (punishing corruption).
The Turkish domination in Tinos wasn’t the same in any way compared to what was happening in other parts of Greece. Tinians enjoyed several privileges both in costume, religion and culture, and in the island’s economy.To be specific, they had the right to wear the local garb, they didn’t have to a fez and they were allowed to build churches and schools.The Turkish fleet were not allowed to approach the island without permission. Turks almost didn’t exist, since they didn’t live on the island, except for the governor and the judge, who were often absent from their headquarters. The island was essentially self-governed by four elected officials who constituted the highest authority of Tinos, named “Community of the island of Tinos”.At that time Tinos flourished, especially its economy, because of the dramatic growth of trade and the evolution of marble craft with shops throughout the Balkans and Asia Minor.It becomes actually the financial capital of the Cyclades, because of its prerogatives. The island often hosted consuls of France, Russia, England, Denmark and Spain. It was called “Little Paris”. The way of life, the houses and cloths were influenced decisively in that period.
On March 31 1821, George Palamaris raised the flag of revolution in Pyrgos. Twenty days afterwards the flag passes in Chora. 5000 soldiers and a rather big fleet of vessels participated in the revolution. Tinian sailors joined the glorious warships of Psara, Spetses and Hydra. More than 12 Tinians were members of the “Friends Society” (“Filiki Eteria”), while the island was a valuable refuge for the persecuted Greeks and refugees.
In the end of January 1823 the icon of Panaghia was found. This was considered the most significant sacred sign for the right of the revolution and Kolokotronis, Miaoulis, Nikitaras and Makrygiannis came to the island to honor the holy icon and pray.
Tinos reappears in history in a dramatic way οn August 15 1940, the day of celebration for the island.
Full of flags, warship Elli was anchored outside the port of Tinos. Greece at that time had no diplomatic relations with fascist Italy. Suddenly the ship was struck by an Italian submarine torpedo, was immediately put in flames and sank after one hour. Two more torpedoes aiming at the crowd on the quay did not explode, which is considered a miracle of the Virgin.The attack against Elli occurred when Italy had not even declared war against Greece.
Although this action intended to “crumple” the Greek pride, it did nothing more than arm the Greeks with more obstinacy, enabling them to win the italians later.
As a tribute each year, a representative of the government throws a wreath at the point where Elli sank, while the fleet admiral lays a wreath at the Mausoleum of Elli beneath the church of Megalochari.